Njavara is a rice variety endemic to Kerala, mainly seen in the northern parts. The cultivation of this rice variety is recorded from 2500 years back. Njavara is a unique grain plant in the Oryza group. Due to many reasons this species is in the verge of extinction. This is widely used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine,especially in
Panchakarma treatment. Njavara as a special cereal, have the properties to rectify the basic ills affecting our curculatory, respiratory and the digestive systems. Njavara is treated as a pious grain, has the properties to rectify various disorders of nervous system. It is also used in temples for ceremonies and for certain preparations of Njavara, offerings are made to gods.
Edaphic,hydrological and atmospheric factors play an important role in quality and yield of rice and medicinal property may vary with environmental conditions. This may be due to the variation in the biosynthesis of active principles behind the medicinal property.

Based on glume color differences, two types of Njavara are recognized, the black and golden yellow glumed types
1. The Black Glumed
It is a black glumed variety and the seed color is red. This variety is highly resistant to drought conditions. It matures in about 60-90 days and reaches about more than 1m height. This variety is generally resistant to diseases. And it lodges. Black glumed variety, an ecotype of “Njavara” rice is best for circulatory, respiratory as well as digestive problems. It is also used in Panchakarma for paralysis. The qualitative and quantitative medicinal properties vary with the habitat of this variety. This is preferred in Northern districts of Kerala. The Biochemical parameters like total free amino acids is higher for the black glumed. The black glumed plant type has a special capacity to absorb Manganese (Mn) and translocate it to the grain.

2. Golden Yellow Glumed
Generally this variety is grown in the second cropping season and it is a Golden Yellow glumed form. Grains are golden yellow and the seed color is red. The plant will reach about 1m heights. It is susceptible to drought. It requires 60-90 days to mature depending on the season and the land for cultivation, and on maturity the crop is susceptible to lodging and diseases. The Biochemical parameters like total soluble sugars showed that it was higher for the yellow glumed. The Golden yellow glumed plant was superior in yield but did not have the Mn preference. This variety is characterized by good seed bearing, high threshability
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